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THE BIRTH OF BARBERING 紳士理髮的誕生

A PROFESSION THAT DATES BACK TO THE PHAROAHS
一個追溯於埃及法老王時期的古老職業

bbc9822a40711f97ece3e42f4e7e1518.jpg5,000BC

As early as 6,000 years ago, barbering services were performed by Egyptian nobility. The crude instruments were usually formed from sharpened flint or oyster shells.

早在6000年前,埃及的貴族就享有理髮的服務。 原始未經加工過的工具通常由尖銳的火石或牡蠣殼製作而成的。

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Barbers of the middle ages not only practiced shaving, hair-cutting, and hair-dressing, they also dressed wounds and performed surgical operations. They were called barber-surgeons.

中世紀的理髮師不只練習剃鬍子,剪髮和美髮,他們還處理傷口並進行手術操作。 他們被稱為理髮師-外科醫生。

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The barber-surgeons formed their first organization in France in 1096.

理髮師-外科醫生於1096年在法國成立了他們的第一個組織。

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In the fourteenth century in England, barbers formed into two classes: those who practiced barbering and those who practiced surgery.

在十四世紀時期的英國,理髮師分為兩種類型:一種是專門理髮的人和另一種是執行手術的人。

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The barber's company and the surgeon's guild were united by law in 1450. The law was enacted so that no one during surgery should practice barbering and no barber should practice any phase of surgery except the pulling of teeth.

理髮師公司和外科醫生協會於1450年經由法律聯合起來。法律的製定是為了確保在手術過程中沒有人應該從事理髮的工作,除了拔牙之外,理髮師不應該進行任何手術方面的事。

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In 1745 a bill was passed separating barbers from surgeons. When the barber-surgeons separated, the barber kept the pole as their identification. The pole consists of red and white, or red, white and blue stripes. Red for blood, white for bandages and blue for veins.

1745年,通過了將理髮師與外科醫生分開的法案。 當理髮師與外科醫生分開時,理髮師將招牌保留做為他們的身份辨識符號。紅白相間的柱狀招牌是由紅色和白色或紅色、白色和藍色條紋組成。紅色代表血液,白色代表繃帶,藍色代表血管。

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Most men of the colonial times were smooth shaven and many of the rich wore wigs. Also in the colonial days, barbering was hardly considered a white man's trade. Hence it was mostly confined to black barbers. Wealthy people became slave owners and the duty of the barber was shifted to the servants.

殖民地時期的大多數人都剃得很光滑,並且有許多有錢人都戴假髮。同樣在殖民時期,理髮也很少被認定為是白人的職業。 因此它的主要從業人員局限於黑人理髮師。有錢人成為奴隸的主人,理髮師的職責則轉移到了僕人的身上。

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George Washington was bled to death by his physician in 1799. He suffered from a prolonged windpipe infection. He died calmly counting his pulse at the age of 67.

1799年,喬治華盛頓被他的醫生放血致死。他遭受了長期的氣管感染。他平靜安詳地於67歲時過世。

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By 1848, bloodletting instruments had disappeared from most doctor's satchels.

到1848年,放血工具從大多數醫生的醫療包中消失了。

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The beard did not come into its own until the Civil War, 1861-1865.

直到1861-1865年的南北戰爭期間,修容並沒有從中獨立出來。

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After the Civil War, with the influx of Dutch, Germans, Italians, and Swedish immigrants, the barber profession elevated.

在南北戰爭之後,隨著荷蘭、德國、意大利和瑞典移民的湧入,理髮專業人士的地位提高了。

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The Civil War that closely followed the Western movement brought more changes to America, including the re-establishment of the barber shop as an accepted institution on Main Street.

緊隨西進運動其後的南北戰爭給美國帶來了更多的變化,包括重新建立理髮廳作為大街上認可的機構。

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The average shop at this time cost approximately $20 to equip and were ten by twelve feet in size. The shop consisted of a straight-backed chair with a head piece resembling a crutch, a basin of water, a piece of common soap and a brush, 'setting' chairs, and enough towels to last a week. "One towel to every ten to twelve customers." Hair cuts were five or ten cents and shaves were three cents.

在這個時期,平均每家理髮廳花費大約20美元來裝潢,店家的尺寸為十乘十二英尺的大小。這家理髮廳包括一張直立的椅子,椅子上有一個類似丁形柺杖頭部支撐的部分,一盆水,一塊普通的肥皂和一把刷子,整組座椅和足夠使用一週的毛巾用量。「每十到十二位顧客使用一條毛巾。」剪髮收費五或十美分,剃鬍子的費用為三美分。

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As people moved westward, there was little time for wigs and personal embellishments. The pioneer life was a hard one. The men let their hair grow as well as their beards.

隨著人們向西部移動,幾乎沒有時間戴假髮和個人裝飾。拓荒者的生活是艱難的。 男人讓自己的頭髮和鬍子一樣自由地生長。

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The Barbers Protective Union was formed on December 6, 1886, in Columbus, Ohio.

理髮保護聯盟於1886年12月6日在俄亥俄州的哥倫布市成立。

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The Protective Union became the Journeymen Barber's International on December 5, 1887.

保護聯盟於1887年12月5日成為國際理髮師公會。

1893

It was not until 1893 when A.B. Moler opened the first Barber School in Chicago. He also published textbooks at that time.

直到1893年,A.B. Moler在芝加哥開設了第一家理髮學院。他當時還出版了教科書。

fd933ab84364c70c036ebb3ae5498fb7.jpg1897

In 1897 the state of Minnesota passed legislation for a barber license. For the next forty years various states enacted legislation whereby barbers were licensed and inspected for sterilization to protect the public from disease. With the enactment of the licensing laws and stringent inspections, diseases such as impetigo, anthrax, ringworm and barber’s itch are seldom heard of today.

1897年,明尼蘇達州通過了一項理髮師執照的立法。在接下來的四十年中,各州頒布了法令,憑此讓理髮師獲得授權許可並進行消毒檢查,以保護民眾免受疾病的侵害。隨著法律許可的頒布和嚴格的檢查,膿皰瘡、炭疽、癬和毛囊炎等疾病現今已經很少聽到了。

ca1c5a5e32c6df6732674ce41685eb01.jpg1915

Irene Castle, a well-known dancer, popularized the bob cut to American women in 1915. Barbers had to quickly learn how to perform the bob cut to keep up with rising demand which peaked in the 1920s.

於1915年,知名的舞蹈家艾琳·卡斯特勒讓鮑伯頭的髮型在美國受到婦女們的歡迎。理髮師不得不快速地學習如何剪出鮑伯頭的髮型以跟上20年代上升達到頂峰的需求。

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During WWI, soldiers wore very short hair due to the frequency of body lice from trenches. No beards were worn and they shaved frequently so that gas masks would seal against the face.

在第一次世界大戰期間,由於在壕溝中染上蝨子的頻率增加,士兵們都理很短的頭髮。他們沒有蓄鬍鬚,也經常刮鬍子,使防毒面具能夠在臉上緊密貼合。

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The Associated Master Barbers of America was organized in 1924 in Chicago, Illinois.

美國聯合理髮大師協會在1924年組織於伊利諾伊州的芝加哥。

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World War II brought about short hair as barbers were called into service. The flat top, butch, crew cut and the Princeton cut became popular.

第二次世界大戰導致短髮盛行,因此理髮師被調遣前來服務。美國大兵頭、小平頭、船員頭和普林斯頓剪裁漸漸流行了起來。

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In 1959, Edmond O. Roffler developed the Roffler Sculptur-Kut technique, a method where barbers could earn big money and capitalize on long hair. The Roffler-Kut system started with 20 barbers.

1959年,愛德蒙·羅夫勒開發了Roffler Sculptur-Kut技術,這種技術可以讓理髮師賺大錢並將技巧利用於長髮上。 Roffler-Kut的技術體系最早是由20名理髮師開始的。

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In the early '60s the Beatles set the stage for long hair. Many barbers who refused to learn the methods of cutting long hair were soon out of business.

在六十年代初期,披頭士樂團為長髮奠定了基礎。許多拒絕學習長髮剪裁技巧的理髮師很快就被市場淘汰了。

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The Roffler-Kut system now has over 6,000 barbers that have been trained in the Roffler Method. It is still being practiced today.

Roffler-Kut的技術體系現在擁有超過6,000名以上經過羅夫勒技術培訓的理髮師。 這套系統直到現今仍然持續被學習運用。

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In 1981, the Journeymen Barber International Union became part of the United Food and Commercial Workers International Union.

1981年,國際理髮師公會成為聯合國糧食和商業工人國際聯盟的一部分。

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Over 50 percent of barber students are female.

超過50%的理髮學徒是女性。

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Since 1995, over 50 percent of barber students are African-American.

自1995年以來,超過50%的理髮師是非裔美國人。

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New technology and techniques continue to shape the future of barbering. Every year more young men and women choose the barber profession. The future of barbering is in their hands.

新科技和新技術繼續塑造著理髮業的未來。每年有更多的年輕男女選擇理髮師為職業。理髮業的未來掌握在他們的手中。

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